Margarethe Szeless: Im Schatten der amerikanischen Bildpolitik Zur Rolle der Fotografie im britischen und französischen Informationsdienst

Abstract
Die Bilderdienste der englischen und französischen Besatzungsmächte waren – v.a. verglichen mit dem Bilderdienst der AmerikanerInnen – weitaus kleinere Abteilungen mit viel weniger MitarbeiterInnen. Dementsprechend waren auch ihr fotografischer Output und ihre Reichweite geringer. Der britische ISB (Information Service Branch) betrieb einen Bilderdienst unter der Leitung von Sybil Kerrison und arbeitete bei der Platzierung von Nachrichtenbildern in österreichischen Zeitungen aufs Engste mit kommerziellen britischen und internationalen Bildagenturen zusammen. Für die Berichterstattung vor Ort wurden österreichische Pressefotografen, darunter Johann und Fritz Basch, August Makart und Alfred Marko, beauftragt. Der französische Bilderdienst unter der Leitung des ehemaligen Kriegsberichterstatters und persönlichen Fotografen von General Béthouart, Robert Moisy, wurde bereits im Jahre 1947 aufgrund finanzieller Engpässe aufgelöst. Die Analyse der französischen Printprodukte, die in Österreich erschienen, zeigt, dass darin literarische Texte und intellektuelle Konzepte dominieren. Dem gedruckten Foto wurde von der französischen Besatzungsmacht kein propagandistischer Mehrwert zugesprochen.

Compared to the Pictorial Section of the American Information Services, the photographic sections of the British and French occupational powers were significantly smaller and had fewer employees. Thus, their photographic output and range was considerably lower. The Photo Section of the British ISB (Information Service Branch) was directed by Sybil Kerrison and cooperated closely with British and international commercial agencies with the scope of placing news photos in Austrian papers. Furthermore, the British ISB commissioned Austrian press photographers, e.g. Johann und Fritz Basch, August Makart and Alfred Marko, to cover local events. The French Service Photographique was founded and run by the former war correspondent and personal photographer of General Béthouart, Robert Moisy. Due to a lack of financial resources, this section was discontinued already in 1947. This article shows that literature and intellectual discourse dominated Austrian newspapers and special interest papers sponsored by the French occupational power, whereas the printed photograph and its propagandistic added value was not exploited.

Marion Krammer: Sowjetunion im Bild Die sowjetische Medien- und Bildpropaganda in Österreich von 1945-1955

Abstract
Dieser Beitrag beschreibt anhand von Quellen aus russischen Archiven, wie der Bilderdienst der sowjetischen Besatzungsmacht in Österreich organisiert war. Es wird gezeigt, dass der Großteil des in Österreich publizierten Bildmaterials aus der Sowjetunion bezogen wurde und sowjetische Themen behandelte. Die zentralen Bildlieferanten waren die Nachrichtenagentur TASS sowie das Sovinformbüro. Bei der sowjetischen Besatzungsmacht waren keine österreichischen PressefotografInnen angestellt, stattdessen kaufte man bei Bedarf österreichische Pressefotos, vor allem von Walter Henisch und Franz Fremuth, zu. Dementsprechend war das Bildmaterial in der von den Sowjets herausgegebenen Welt-Illustrierten bei Erscheinen häufig bereits veraltet und nicht spezifisch auf die österreichische LeserInnenschaft zugeschnitten, was letztlich für die geringe Popularität dieses Mediums ausschlaggebend war.

Drawing on sources from Russian archives, this article describes the organizational structure of the Soviet pictorial service in Austria. Most of the pictorial material published in Austrian media was obtained from the USSR and dealt with Russian topics. Photographs were mainly delivered by the news agency TASS and by the Sovinformburo. The Soviet occupying power did not employ Austrian press photographers, however, Austrian press photos, e.g. by Walter Henisch and Franz Fremuth, were bought if needed. Thus, the photographs in the Soviet publication Welt-Illustrierte were often out-of-date and did not cater to the Austrian public. This may account for the limited success of this illustrated magazine.

Rezensionen 1/2017

Nicola Gess & Alexander Honold (Hg.) Handbuch Literatur & Musik. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter 2016, 683 Seiten.
– rezensiert von Uwe Schütte, Birmingham, Berlin

Bernd Jürgen Warneken: Fraternité! Schöne Augenblicke in der europäischen Geschichte. Wien, Köln, Weimar: Böhlau 2016, 344 Seiten.
– rezensiert von Alessandro Barberi, Wien

Editorial 4/2016 Manuel Menke & Christian Schwarzenegger

Media, Communication and Nostalgia
Finding a better tomorrow in the yesterday?

 

Today is grey skies, tomorrow is tears
you’ll have to wait till yesterday is here
Tom Waits

In 2016, it appears, the promise of a good future was increasingly sought for in the past and by invoking the spirit of a faded prior exceptionality. In the Brexit campaign or the US elections, to name but a few of the most prominent examples for similar developments around the globe, nostalgia fuelled populism and nationalist identity politics. “Take back control” and “Make America great again” were as much the essence of a nostalgic narrative of a better past as they were a false promise for a better future. The glorious times such politics refer to in their campaigns are hard to trace and likely never existed in the imagined form. But they are offered as a projection surface for people´s hopes, dreams, and fears, harvesting the sentiments and affections of disgruntled parts of the population to capitalise them for political success. In the now so anxiously termed “post-truth” era – in itself a reference to a favourable yet allegedly bygone version of reality – nostalgia is used for orchestrating affects at the cost of facts and rational discourse. The success of such political strategies in Western democracies stunned liberals across the globe and the debate about its appeal will have to continue due to the persistent distrust in democracy, media, and politics we are contemporarily witnessing in Europe and elsewhere. Weiterlesen

Ekaterina Kalinina: What Do We Talk About When We Talk About Media and Nostalgia?

Abstract
Nostalgia is often understood as a syndrome and a therapeutic mechanism for healing traumatic past experiences, a retrospective utopia of safety and stability, or a revisionist project of rewriting history in a more user-friendly and appealing way. The literature also highlights different uses of nostalgic sentiments, such as their commercial and aesthetic applications, affective nature, material dimensions, and political relevance, among many others. Previous research has shown that media, popular culture and creative industries are the central platforms for nostalgic productions, which not only allow for creativity but also manipulate users’ attitudes towards the past and induce nostalgia in audiences. Such an abundance of perspectives and theories on nostalgia creates conceptual confusion. With this in mind, this essay aims at more clearly elucidating theories on nostalgia. As engagement with broader debates on the role of the media in nostalgic experiences has also been limited, this essay will provide some remarks on the relations between media and nostalgia.

Steffen Lepa & Vlasis Tritakis: Not Every Vinyl Retromaniac is a Nostalgic A social experiment on the pleasures of record listening in the digital age

Abstract
Approaching current vinyl enthusiasm in late modernity, we postulate four mechanisms as possible explanations and test them by conducting a social experiment with 31 music listeners. Half of them were to play the vinyl version of a current music album; the rest were given the CD. Without participants’ knowledge, the headphone sound was manipulated, effectively resulting in a between-subjects design with ‘sound’ and ‘sensory appeal’ as independent variables and ‘emotional arousal’ and ‘nostalgia’ as dependents. Additionally, participants’ birth year was implemented as a covariate. Obtained results confirm the distinctive sound of the Vinyl as well as its sensory appeal to be both aesthetically more exciting for nowadays’ listeners compared to a CD. Furthermore, we demonstrate feelings of technostalgia to be ‘embodied’ since they only appear with ‘valid’ material media of one’s own past. In contrast, generational aura attributions emerge when handling ‘obsolete’ audio media one has not been socialized with.

Lynne Hibberd & Zoë Tew-Thompson: Hills, Old People, and Sheep Reflections of Holmfirth as the Summer Wine town

Abstract
Holmfirth, West Yorkshire, UK is globally renowned as the setting for the world’s longest running sitcom Last of the Summer Wine (UK, BBC, 1973-2010). This article explores how the TV series has become embedded in the practical existence of the town and draws on empirical research with residents of Holmfirth which shows how people situate themselves in relation to their factual and fictionalized cultural heritage. In this paper we consider the interrelationship between media and memories and the role that nostalgia plays for the production, commodification, distribution and exchange of narratives.

Jakob Hörtnagl: “Why? Because It’s Classic!“ Negotiated knowledge and group identity in the retrogaming-community “Project 1999”

Abstract
This paper explores the preservation of the social architecture as a constitutive element of the retrogaming-community Project 1999, a group of players who are enthusiastic about a specific classic phase of the old MMORPG Everquest. In an attempt to recreate an authentic gaming experience, certain technical and cultural characteristics of this era are invoked as a symbolic resource in a retrospective discourse. The players negotiate nostalgic sentiments in the contradictory conditions of the contemporary converging media environment to recreate what they consider the “essence” of Everquest. The paper follows this issue by investigating the ways in which knowledge is collected and applied. Using a dedicated wiki, information about the original game is collected and made visible within the community in a collaborative effort. This provides opportunities to reflect and discuss shared memories and recreate authenticity not only on the technical, but also on the cultural level. The stated ideal, although impossible to achieve, serves as an important point of reference in ongoing negotiations on the condition of the game. A collective memory grounded in nostalgic longing directed at the past thus becomes a source for shared identity and communitization in the present.

Ezequiel Korin: Nowstalgia Articulating future pasts through selfies and GoPro-ing

Abstract
This article discusses the emergence and prevalence of a prospective nostalgic narrative of present events articulated through the practices of selfies and GoPro-ing as instances of anticipatory future yearning, colloquially identified as nowstalgia. The compound term collapses past, present, and future into a deeply complex temporal construct, as the object of such a yearning is but a possibility that is waiting to happen or, at best, one that is taking place in the present.
Using a critical cultural approach, the article proposes nowstalgia as an analytical tool for the exploration of selfies and GoPro-ing as moments of active construction of a presumably valorized past-in-the-making. The conditions of production of nowstalgic narratives hinge, the author argues, on the abstraction or removal of the subject from the present actions and situations in which they are immersed, in favor of documenting them, which becomes justified by their possible yearning in the future.

Mario Keller: Experienced Mood and Commodified Mode Forms of nostalgia in the television commercials of Manner

Abstract
The article raises the question how nostalgia is utilized as an advertising strategy in the television commercials of the Austrian sweets producer Manner. The first section of the paper elaborates how different variations of this emotion developed and how the meaning of it changed throughout history. Among others nostalgia became an important aspect of consumer culture and was therefore increasingly popular as a tool for advertising and marketing. In the second part of the paper, by analysing and comparing a Manner commercial from 1998 to two from 2015, it is shown in what different ways nostalgia can be visualized and communicated in television advertising. Whereas the 1998 campaign tried to evoke a “real” nostalgic mood in viewers by referring to national collective as well as to individual consumers’ nostalgia, the 2015 commercials playfully engaged with various superficial nostalgic references and omitted negative facets of nostalgia.